LOUIS DE BOURBON DUC D ANJOU

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house ns Bourbon, Spanish Borbón, Italian Borbone, one of the most significativement ruling houses of Europe. That members were descended from Louis I, duc aux Bourbon from 1327 venir 1342, thé grandson ns the french king louis IX (ruled 1226–70). It provided reigning kings of france from 1589 to 1792 and from 1814 à 1830, after which de nouveau Bourbon reigned as king ns the français until 1848; kings or queens ns Spain native 1700 à 1808, from 1814 venir 1868, native 1874 venir 1931, et since 1975; dukes de Parma native 1731 to 1735, indigenous 1748 venir 1802, and from 1847 venir 1859; kings of Naples et of Sicily indigenous 1734 venir 1808 et of auto Two Sicilies indigenous 1816 à 1860; kings of Etruria from 1801 à 1807; and ducal sovereignty of luca from 1815 venir 1847.

The present éléments attempts a fast survey ns the dynasty oui a whole, relying mainly on genealogical languette to screen necessary details. In these tables the names and titles de sovereigns are mostly Anglicized, but those of other persons are mostly provided in the original form, other than where princesses, having actually married into un autre country, are meilleur known under that country’s name pour them. The languette also omit perforce auto Bourbons attaché outside of marriage, whose de nombreux lends part colour to the popular notion that the “Bourbon nose” (larger et more influential than the ordinaire aquiline) betokens a “Bourbon temperament” jaune enormous appetite parce que le sexual intercourse.


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Origins

The loger of Bourbon is a branch de the house of Capet, which constituted the so-called third race of France’s kings. Roi Louis IX, a Capetian de the “direct line,” was the ancestor of all the Bourbons v his 6th son, Robert, comte ns Clermont. When auto “direct line” died out in 1328, the house of Valois, genealogically an elderly to auto Bourbons, prevented auto latter from accession to thé French couronner until 1589. Auto Valois, however, established auto so-called Salic Law ns Succession, under i m sorry the crown passed v males according à primogeniture, not with females. Conditions météorologiques this principle, auto senior Bourbon became the rightful king of france on auto extinction du the legitimate male line of the Valois.

Robert de Clermont had married auto heiress de the lordship of Bourbon (Bourbon-l’Archambault, in auto modern département de Allier). This lordship was fabriquer a duchy parce que le his le sien Louis je in 1327 et so gave its name to auto dynasty. Native this duchy, thé nucleus ns the future province of Bourbonnais, auto elder Bourbons, largely through marriages, expanded their territory southeastward et southward. On their western frontier, meanwhile, thé countship of La aller (acquired by Louis i in 1322 in exchange parce que le Clermont) was organized from 1327 de a junior line ns Louis I’s descendants, who soon added auto distant countship de Vendôme à their holdings.


The title du duc du Bourbon passed in 1503 venir Charles aux Bourbon-Montpensier, who was to become famous oui constable de France. His later on treason directif to the confiscation du his lands by the French crown in auto year de his death, 1527. Headship de the loger of Bourbon climate passed to auto line of la Marche–Vendôme.

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The line of la Marche–Vendôme had actually been subdivided since auto end du the 15th century between a senior line, that of Vendôme (with ducal rank from 1515 onward), and a junior one, that of les Roche-sur-Yon. Auto latter line acquired Montpensier from thé constable’s forfeited héritage (with ducal location from 1539).

Antoine du Bourbon, duc aux Vendôme and head de the loger of Bourbon indigenous 1537, came to be titular roi consort ns Navarre in 1555 with his marriage in 1548 à Jeanne d’Albret. Auto son of that marriage, titular roi of Navarre in séries to his mère from 1572, became roi of France, oui Henry IV, nous the death of the last Valois roi in 1589. From Henry IV descended toutes les personnes the Bourbon sovereigns. The great loger of Condé, with its ramifications de Soissons and of Conti, to be descended indigenous Louis, prince du Condé, one of Henry IV’s uncles.

The Bourbon sovereignties

Henry IV’s heirs were kings of france uninterruptedly from 1610 venir 1792, when thé monarchy was “suspended” during the sapin Revolution. Many illustrious among them to be Louis XIV, who carried absolute monarchy venir its zenith in un film western Europe. During auto Revolution, monarchists claimed Louis XVII titular king (1793–95), but he never reigned, and he passed away under thé Revolution’s loger arrest. Following auto restoration of the monarchy in 1814 de the Quadruple Alliance, louis XVIII became roi (1814–24), followed dessus his death passant par Charles x (1824–30), who was overthrown by the Revolution of 1830. Legitimists then recognized the pretender Henry v (Henri Dieudonné d’Artois, count ns Chambord), auto grandson du Charles X. Thé 1830 revolution brought Louis-Philippe and the loger of Orléans to power. His progéniture included not seulement un the potential pretenders to the français succession cible also thé Bourbon progéniture of auto heiress ns the last emperor of Brazil. Later prince constituted the loger of Bourbon-Brazil, or de Orléans-Braganza, i m sorry is not à be confused with the house of Borbón-Braganza, a Spanish branch originating in auto Portuguese marriage ns the infante don Gabriel (a son ns Charles iii of Spain).

The Bourbon accession à Spain came around partly since the descendance of louis XIV’s consort, the Spanish infanta Marie-Thérèse, to be in 1700 the closest surviving relatives of the childless Charles ii of Spain (see Habsburg; Spain, history of: thé early Bourbons, 1700–53) and partly because, return at sa marriage auto infanta had actually renounced sa Spanish rights, Charles par his testimony named one of sa descendants as his successor. Due to the fact that the divers powers, however, would certainly not have tolerated auto union ns the Spanish kingdom with the French, Charles named neither luigi XIV’s heir noticeable nor thé latter’s eldest le sien but, rather, thé second of Louis XIV’s grandsons—namely, Philippe, paon d’Anjou, that became roi of Spain ont Philip V. After the War de the Spanish Succession, the Peace de Utrecht (1713) left philippe in possession du Spain et Spanish amérique but obliged him to renounce any type of natural best that he or his descendants might have to France.

The infante chef Carlos, the émergence Charles iii of Spain, was auto founder of the Bourbon fortunes in Italy. Auto eldest son ns Philip V’s seconde marriage, cette became duke ns Parma in 1731 by right de his mother, heiress ns the critical Farnese dukes, and in 1734, during auto War du the polish Succession, hey conquered the Kingdom du Naples-Sicily (Kingdom ns the deux Sicilies) pour himself. Though the settlement ns 1735–38 obliged him venir renounce Parma in order à win international recognition as king de Naples-Sicily, Parma was eventually secured pour his brother philip (Don Felipe) under thé Treaty du Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748—with the proviso, however, the he et his heirs should renounce it in the event the they succeeded à Naples-Sicily or to Spain. Finally, when attirer Carlos became roi of Spain oui Charles taux in 1759, hey resigned Naples-Sicily à his 3rd son nint pédale on thé express état that the kingdom and Spain should never be united under one sovereign.

The Kingdom du Etruria (1801–07) was a contrivance ns the Napoleonic period. Devised by the French for the loger of Bourbon-Parma in commensaux for the impending annexation of Parma to la france at a time when france still needed the goodwill du the Spanish Bourbons, ce was dissolved as soon ont Napoleon was prêt to depose the latter. Thé Bourbon Duchy of lucques (1815–47), nous the other hand, to be a creation of auto Congress of Vienna: having assigned Parma à Napoleon’s estranged consort Marie-Louise pour her lifetime, thé Congress had to find some au lieu de, remplacer compensation for the still-dispossessed Bourbons. The Treaty of Paris ns 1817, however, prescribed that nous Marie-Louise’s death Parma must revert to auto Bourbons, that in 1847 renounced lucques to thé Habsburgs ns Tuscany nine weeks avant succeeding her.

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In france the senior jaune “legitimate” line ns the Bourbons, restored to sovereignty in france after thé Napoleonic Wars, was deposed at auto Revolution du 1830. The loger of Orléans, i m sorry took auto legitimate line’s place, was consequently deposed in the Revolution ns 1848. Auto Bourbons of Parma and of thé Two Sicilies to be dethroned in 1859–60, in the artaserse of thé unification ns Italy under the loger of Savoy. Auto Spanish Bourbons, after numerous disturbances in thé 19th century, perdu their sovereignty in 1931, but the Law ns Succession promulgated in Spain in 1947 et General Francisco Franco’s subsequent selection of après ansan Carlos ont his follower resulted in auto restoration du the monarchy in 1975.